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Psychology

“ Psychology Every act of perception is to some degree an act of creation, and every act of memory is to some degree an act of imagination.” Oliver sacks

Why some people are angry, some are shy, some are very humble? How and where in the brain are memories stored? From all these questions I have only one answer that is Psychology. The discipline that studies all of these questions and countless more. Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour. The term behaviour refers to actions and responses that we can directly observe, whereas the term mind refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelings. To understand this we have to use critical thinking as you know. If you have to solve any problem you use critical thinking. So, what is it ? critical thinking is that when we think about any particular issue then we analyse it or observe the issue and then we make a judgmental report. So this is the process of critical thinking.

Important Point’s:-

Psychology as a basic and applied science has two types of research:

  • Basic research reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake.
  • Applied research is signed to solve specific, practical problems.

History of psychology

The development of psychological thought begins in ancient times. As a self -conscious formal discipline, psychology is little more than a century old, but the subject matter captured the human imagination long before psychology became a science. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) established the first experimental psychology laboratory at the university of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. After that, his graduate student Edward Titchner (1867-1927) later established a psychology laboratory in the U.S at Cornell University.

The developments of psychology has taken place in both eastern and western contexts. The Indian traditions in psychology elaborate conceptual frame work comprising a worldview. A theoretical analysis of the structure and processes relating to human personality, a normative account defining the nature of higher and lower levels of the functioning of personality. The set of techniques design to help the not so well developed individual reach more desirable levels of development. A set of social institutions within which growth of personality can be facilitated.

Goals of psychology

These goals are similar as what you use in your daily life to interact with others. For example, when we have to deal with children we ask such types of questions “what are they doing” ? (describing). “why are they doing that”? (explaining). “what would happen if you responded in this way”? (predicting). “what can I do to get them to stop doing that”? (changing). So here, are explanations of these primary goals.

There are four primary goals of psychology:

Describe – Psychologists seek to describe how people behave, think and feel.

Explain – Psychologists strive to explain to understand why people act as they do.

Control – Psychologists exert control by designing experiments or other types of research to test whether their proposed explanations are accurate or not.

Apply – In last, psychologists apply psychological knowledge in ways that enhance human welfare.

Describing psychology

When we describe things every day without conscious thought or effort, but the describing of psychology has a slightly different meaning than the describing we do in our day to day life. Describing the problem an issue or a behaviour is the first goal of psychology. It helps psychologists to distinguish between typical and atypical behaviour and gain more accurate understanding of human and animal behaviour. A variety of research methods, including observational method, case studies, survey allow psychologists to pursue this goal.

When it comes to explain, psychologists seek able to explain behaviours. It provides answer to question about why people react to certain stimuli in certain ways. How various factors impact personalities and mental health. Psychologists use experiments which measure the impacts of variable upon behaviour, it helps to explain the aspects of human and animal behaviours.

When it comes to predict about human and animals. Psychologists able to predict why, whn and how behaviours might happen in the future. It gives psychologists the ability to change or control behaviour.

When it comes to change psychologists aim to change, influence or control behaviour to make positive, constructive, meaningful and lasting changes in people’s lives and to influence their behaviour better.

How psychology is scientific in nature?

Most of the people or scientists don’t believe that psychology is also comes under science as well. But it has proven psychology is a science because it follows the empirical method.

As psychology as a discipline has the accuracy value. This is so, because whenever the psychologists have to carry out their tests such as personality test, memory test and many more experiments to measure the behaviour of the population by their thinking. It is also sure that the results of experiments. The scoring of the tests are not affecting to the human bias and thus the objectivity value is also incorporate. Whenever any psychologist comes up with some of the other findings, then that is not immediately termed as theory.

Many other psychologists also carry out the same experiments and the results are then matched. Only after verifying the results a theory formulated. Thus, we can see the presence of scepticism value. Now, if the result of one psychologists varies from what the majority have got, then that psychologist is very much open to accept his/her own findings as inaccurate and supports the correct results. Therefore, psychology covers the value of open- mind ness as well. We agreed that psychology is scientific in nature because, it shows and covers all the values required by any discipline to be called as scientific.

Early schools of thought in psychology

Every human being have their own perspective to see anything as here, psychologists focus on the biological, psychological and environmental factors that influence behaviour.

Structuralism

The analysis of the mind in terms of the basic element. Psychology should focus on analysing the contents of consciousness in order to determine its basic elements. The method is introspection (it means observation of one’s mental state) and proponents was given by Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchner. In their experiments, structuralists used the method of introspection (looking within) to study sensations, which they considered the basic elements of consciousness. They exposed participants to all sorts of sensory stimuli – lights, sounds, tastes and trained them to describe their inner experiences.

Functionalism

It held that psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its elements. The proponent given by William James. The functionalists asked similar questions about mental processes and behaviour. They were influence by Darwin’s evolutionary theory, which stresses the importance of adaption in helping organisms survive and reproduce in their environment.

Behaviourism –

It focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions. Our behaviour is jointly determined by habits from our previous life experiences. The Experimental method is used. John. B Watson founded the school of behaviourism in 1913.

Gestalt psychology –

German word Gestalt means ‘ form or configuration’. Mind should be thought of as resulting from the whole pattern of sensory activity. The relationship and organization within the pattern. The proponents was given by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka.

Psychoanalysis –

The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces. It is the expression of the unconscious drives which shows up in behaviour and thought.

Biological perspective –

It studies about the functions of body, brain, role of harmones etc.

Humanistic perspective –

It emphasized free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence. The proponents given by Abraham Maslow, Carl Roger.

Cognitive perspective –

The humans as thinker thoughts, anticipations, planning, perceptions, attention and memory processes. It examines the nature of mind and how mental processes influence behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Socio- cultural perspective – The human being as social being embedded in culture. Social forces including norms, social interactions and group process in one’s culture and social environment.

Personality

In psychology, how individual is different from others.  So, the answer is personality, personality is when the people distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterise a person’s responses to life situations. It arises from the notions of individuality, uniqueness because people differ meaningfully in the ways in which they think, feel and act. Most famous psychologists Sigmund Freud gave the theory of Psychoanalysis.

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About Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of the psychodynamic movement in psychology. Many of his patients sat or reclined on the couch above while he sat in a chair, listening to them and developing his psychoanalytic theory of personality. He was born and raised in Europe during the Victorian age, a time of sexual repression. It works with Charcot in Paris on hysteria and hypnosis learned to accept psychological causes for illnesses, and the existence of hysteria along with the use of hypnosis. He  work with Breuer on Anna o Catharsis and abreaction transference and counter transference.

He believed that the mind was divides into three parts the preconscious, conscious, and unconscious minds. The concept of the unconscious mind was the real departure for the professionals of Freud’s day. He theorized that there is a part of the mind that remains hidden at all times, surfacing only in symbolic form in dreams and in some of the behaviour people engage in without knowing why they have done so. Even when a person makes a determined effort to bring a memory out of the unconscious mind, it will not appear directly, according to Freud the unconscious mind was the most important determining factor in human behaviour and personality.

Pleasure Principle

The need for the satisfaction is known as the pleasure principle. which can be defined as the desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for the consequences. Reality principle is the need to satisfy the demands of the id only in ways that will not lead t negative consequences. This means that sometimes the go decides to deny the id s desires because the consequences would  be painful or to unpleasant.

The id makes demand the superego puts restrictions on how those demands can be meets the ego has to come up with a plan that will quiet the id but satisfy the superego. Sometimes the id or the superego does not get its way, resulting in a great deal of anxiety for the ego itself. This constant state of conflict is Freud’s view of how personality works, it is only when the anxiety created by this conflict gets out of hand that disordered behaviour arises. After that his daughter Anna Freud gave the psychological defence mechanisms. The ways of dealing with anxiety through unconsciously distorting one’s perception of reality.

Consciousness

Our human Psyche is all very complex and volatile means its always on the run ,moving changing , adapting and adjusting to its climate , habitat and influences and so more. It governs all things our receptive brain which is the storehouse of memory such as a computer which was fundamentally based on our brain structure .

Our psyche is our consciousness  and it is an very reactive and responsive at all moments . It consists  of anxieties , pleasures, fear , isolation, greed , tendencies and ones behaviour etc. Its behaviour is all dull and repetitive which does the same thing over and over again , For example sorrow , we humans suffer a lot especially adults. Who are caught in the 9 to 5 job their peculiar habits and tendencies. A working job is the deadliest and very harmful for the brain . one can observe it on their own self. We humans are not individuals , in fact  our share same consciousness.

It replicates since time immemorial. We haven’t  transformation totally, we have changed which is modification of things at all levels earlier. We used to live in tribes  or groups for the sake of security and protection. Now it has modified into nations and countries ,we have been this way since we are born on planet earth , The consciousness is all same of every single person , we consider this or not but this is a fact altogether, and this can only transform which is total and complete when humans can be aware of everything which is taking place   inside his psyche all the time.

Human brain

One can be aware of it just like he is aware of his hairstyle , the kinds of clothes he wear and so  on , but without prejudice any evaluation.  When fear arises in psyche which is a fragment of consciousness just be aware and see its total movement from where its coming why he is coming and etc, then only you will understand and find out the root cause of fear which deteriorate the braincells . You must be alive you must feel the urgency and immediacy to understand something so that the exercise of thought realizes its limitation and boundaries . Right now thought dictates everything which creates conflict , it is a fragment of our brain which plays monopoly and we neglect every other things.   

The total transformation of consciousness is a necessity no a want if you realize this and observe it you will see your brain is became extraordinary still and quiet , and not chattering all the time which is the exercise of thought , FOR example when there is silence you can hear and explore a great deal every single detail and with that observation comes understanding.