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MASTERING BIOLOGY

What do you mean by biology?

Mastering Biology means, the study of life and living things rigorously tested, in peer-reviewed scientific research methods. It has evolved as a field of science since, it was first studied in ancient civilizations, modern Biology is a relatively recent field.  It is a process of testing Ideas using evidence gathered from the natural world. Science is iterative and involves critical thinking, questioning, doubting, careful data collection, rigorous reviews and the communication of results. It also refers to the body of knowledge produced by scientific investigation.

 Let’s understand biology, a natural science concerned with the study of life and all living organisms.

Also Modern biology is a vast field compose of many specialized disciplines that study The structure, function, growth, distribution,  evolution and other features of living organisms.

 The cell is the basic unit of life

Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity seen among living organisms. All organisms maintain a stable internal environment and structure. Genes are essential and basic units of heredity. It also indicates the forms of living beings on Earth. They were microorganisms that existed for billions of years before the evolution of larger organisms. Human beings are part of this evolution. mammals, birds, and flowers are familiar to us. all are relative and originated within the last two hundred million year.

Our closest appearing species are Homo Sapiens, who have inhabited this planet for the last 200000 years. The special areas of biology do exist with subdisciplines. It is conveniently divide into practical and theoretical categories. At first, The practical biology e include plant breeding, wildlife management,  medical science, and crop production. Theoretical biology contains the disciplines of physiology- the study of the function of living things, biochemistry – the study of the chemistry of organisms, ecology- the study of populations and their interaction with each other and their environment. and microbiology-  Because the study of microscopic organisms.

Cell structure and functions of Mastering Biology

The study of the form, structure, and composition of cells is call cytology. The cell is the structural and most functional unit of life. It is divide into fragments but the most essential and fundamental unit. In unicellular organisms such as Amoeba, Paramecium, yeast and bacteria are the single-cell performance of all the essential functions of life. Whereas in multicellular organisms, different kinds of tissues perform the essential function.

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to see and describe what a living cell looks like. Another gentleman, Robert Brown, later discovered the nucleus. Matthias Schleiden and  Theodore Schwann 1938 propose. The cell theory which was later modify and transform by Rudolf Virchow in 1855. Every single living organism is compose of cells and our products of cells. all cells arise from pre-existing cells.

The cells are divide into two categories- prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells.

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

 1. Also these are represented by bacteria, blue-green algae, mycoplasma and PPLO. These cells multiply themself rapidly and increase in size greatly.

2. Because Bacteria cells may be e bacillus- rod-shape, coccus- spherical, vibrio-   comma-shaped.

3. All prokaryotic cells have cell walls around themselves and the cell membrane except in mycoplasma. genetic material is naked and raw.

 4. Also the plasmid DNA in some bacteria provides some special features like resistance to antibiotics.

 5. Specialised differentiated cell membrane called mesosome is the characteristic of prokaryotes.

Important of Mastering Biology

  •  Cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi bodies are absent in prokaryotes.
  •  The outermost is glycocalyx, middle one wall and innermost is the cell membrane. These are layers of complex three in a bacteria.
  • Glycocalyx may be loose in some bacteria call the Slime layer. In some other bacteria glycocalyx may be thick and tough called a capsule.
  •  A motile bacteria cell contains flagella, which is compose of filament, hook, and the basal body.  At least Pili and fimbriae surface structures that help the bacteria to attach with host and other substances. In prokaryotes, ribosomes are attach with cell membranes having two subunits 50s and 30s form together 70s prokaryotic ribosomes.
  •  Ribosomes are sites of protein synthesis. There are some reserved materials present in prokaryotic cells such as the cell inclusion body, which may contain phosphate, granules, glycogen granules etc.       

EUKARYOTIC CELL 

Eukaryotic cells are present in Protista, plants, animals and fungi. The cytoplasm is divide into compartments due to the presence of membrane-bounded organelles.

 The cells contain well-organised nuclei with nuclear membranes. The genetic materials are arrange in chromosomes. Plant cells differ in having cell wall, plastid cell large central vacuole as compared to animal cells. Animal cells have centrioles that are absent in plant cells.

ANIMAL CELL

The animal cell membrane is compose of lipids that are arrange in a bilayer. The liquid component is compose of phospho glycerides. Later in research found that protein is also present in the cell membranes. The ratio of protein and lipids arise in different cells. Also famous researchers Singer and Nicholson proposed the fluid mosaic model. The model offers the Quasi fluid nature of lipid enables lateral movement of protein within the layer of lipids. The movement of water from higher concentration to lower concentration by diffusion is call osmosis. The cell wall is present in plant cells and fungi. algae have a cell wall made of cellulose. Because the primary cell wall of a young plant is capable of growth, which diminishes in mature cells. A secondary cell wall is form on the inner side of the cells. Plasmodesmata connect the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells.

GOLGI APPARATUS

It was first observed by Camillo Golgi in 1898 near the nucleus. These consist of many flat, disc-shaped sax stacked parallel to each other. Because Golgi apparatus performs the function of packaging materials and their transportation. Several proteins synthesised by ribosomes are modified in sacs of the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus is the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids.

 Respiration in plants Mastering Biology

Respiration is an energy-releasing, enzymatically controlled catabolic process that involves the stepwise oxidative breakdown of food substances inside living cells.  After all, as you all know living organisms require energy for doing all activities,  like absorption,  movement reproduction or even breathing. The energy required is obtained from the oxidation of food during respiration.  The process of respiration requires oxygen in plants. Oxygen is taken by stomata, lenticels and root hairs.

  • Each plant takes care of its own gas exchange needs.
  • plants do not present greater demands for gas exchange.
  • The distance that gases must diffuse in a large plant is not great.
  • During photosynthesis O2 is released in leaves and diffuses to other parts of leaves. 

Mineral nutrition of Mastering Biology

 It is the study of the source, mode of absorption, distribution and metabolism of various inorganic substances by plants for their growth, development, structure,  physiology and reproduction.

Also there are various forms and functions of essential nutrients:

 Nitrogen– 

Is required by plants in the greatest amount.  After that it is one of the major constituents of proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.

 Phosphorus– 

As can be seen, Is absorbed by plants from the soil in the form of phosphate ions.  It is the constituent of the cell membrane.  all nucleic acids and nucleotides require phosphorus.

 Potassium– 

Also it acts softly as potassium ions (k+).  It helps to maintain cation-anion balance in cells.

 Calcium– 

It is absorbed by plants from soil informed by calcium ions.  It is used in the synthesis of cell walls.  it activates certain enzymes.

 Magnesium

Also It used plants in the form of mg2 + of ions. It activates enzymes for respiration,  photosynthesis and is involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

 Sulphur– 

The plants obtain sulphur in the form of sulphate.  it presents in amino acids and is the main constituent of  co- Enzymes and vitamins.

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Conclusion

Therefore, efforts to make students on topics in multiple disciplines are currently underway. Biology is the study of life. We as human beings should understand ourselves and other living beings. It will promote peace and harmony and great understanding. All the plants and animals are part of nature and interconnected with humans. So, biology helps us in understanding and gives a clear perception of our surrounded world. The quality of life is determined and the structure to build a peaceful environment.

As i have shown above, Life arises from the earth first ocean, which was formed approximately 3.8 billion years ago. Water can absorb energy giving it a higher capacity. In biology, we study so many things and get knowledge about our life. It is very necessary to understand our body structure so, we make our life healthy. The world will impede survival without the knowledge of life forms, structure etc. At the same time mastering biology book has the best concepts to understand biology. It provides a wide range of education about various disciplines of biology.