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Environmental impact assessment

“The environmental Impact and the economy are really both two sides of the same coin. If we cannot sustain the environment. We cannot sustain ourselves. – Wangari Maathai.

Environmental impact in this era. The people don’t care about environment. There are so schemes, which government offer that human engage in these activities. When people started observing that glaciers are melt. The earth temperature is increasing then people focus on environment. Because of people this environment condition happens that’s. Why they started this act to understand environment causes and what to do for environment.

Environment is not only for oxygen but It is very necessary for earth. So, this assessment is also for environmental purpose. It is the assessment based on environment consequences, plan, reports, policy to move forward with the proposed action. Also it is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development. This is taking into account inter-related socio- economic, cultural and human- health impacts both beneficial and adverse.

It aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision- makers.

EIA Component for (Environmental impact)

There are some components of EIA which is necessary to involve the process of EIA project:

Screening

It works to determine which project requires a partial impact or full impact assessment study.

Scoping

Also it works to identify which projects are beneficial to the environment. Which projects fulfill the requirements of expert knowledge and to identify alternative solutions that avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse impacts on biodiversity. At last fulfill the environmental impact assessment.

Assessment and evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives

There are ways to decide and predict by environmental impacts of program and projects via of alternatives.

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Reporting the environmental impact statement

EIA report including an ecosystem approach and management. There must be general audience to rely on and better understanding would sow the seeds of sustainability.

Review of the EIA

There are some terms of reference which indicates better establishment of general audience and public participation is essential for the better future.

Decision making

The criteria for decision making and its component should be rational sanely and logical. Which covers all human grounds the main project on what conditions and under volatile circumstances. The approval should be the better one.

History of EIA (Environmental impact)

In India, the environmental impact assessment began over 20 years back. It was started in 1976-77. It started with the implementation of the National Environment Policy Act (NEPA) 1969 in the US. EIA is now mandatory for more than 30 categories of projects, and these projects get Environmental Clearance (EC) only after the EIA requirements are fulfilled. Till 1994, the environmental clearance.

The central government was an administrative decision and lacked legislative support. When the planning commission asked the department of science & technology to examine the river- valley projects from an environmental angle. On 27th Jan, 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, under the protection act of 1986, gives mandatory for expansion of any activity for setting up new projects. It is mandatory for various projects such as mining, thermal power plants, river valley, infrastructure and industries including very small electroplating units to get environment clearance.

CLIMATE CHANGE in Environmental impact

There are two basic elements  that one learns about the natural environment  of any region. Climate refers to  the total of weather conditions  and variations over a huge area for a long period  for time, whereas Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere  over an area at any point  time.

The elements of weather and climate are same i.e, temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation. People often observed  that  the weather conditions fluctuate very often within a day. It comes and goes with a common practical patterns over a few weeks or months, i.e, days are cool or hot , windy or calm , cloudy or bright, and wet or dry. On generalized atmospheric conditions , the year divides into seasons such as winter, summer or rainy seasons.

The climate of India is often termed as the monsoon type. In Asia, this type of climate is found mainly in the south and the southeast. The hottest summers were recorded in some parts of Rajasthan  desert, and the temperature touches around 50 degree c whereas the coldest is in Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir. The temperature reaches around minus 45 c. There are other variations factor involved in the form and types of precipitation and seasonal distribution. The annual precipitation is mostly falls in the upper parts of the Himalayas, it varies from over 400cm in Meghalaya and in Ladakh  and western Rajasthan.

CLIMATE CONTROLS

Also the climate control is a major factor in climate change, and there are six powerful and importance controls of climate of any place. They are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system ,distance from  the sea ,ocean currents and relief features. As a result ,air temperature  generally goes from the surface  of the earth  to higher altitudes. The hills are so dense and cooler in summer the reason behind is the pressure and wind system of any area and the sun designed linings till the day.

The pressure and wind conditions  over India are unique , During winter, North of the Himalayas. Cold dry winds blow from this region to the low pressure areas over  the oceans. The upper air circulation in the region is dominated by a westerly flow. An important component of this flow is the jet stream. The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena flow from the Mediterranean region. Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon ,as well as , in October to November.

Western coast and northeastern Indian

The distribution of rainfall on western coast and northeastern Indian parts receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. As you compared to the other states, In western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the deccan plateau, and east of the Himalayas. The rest of the regions receives moderate to low rainfall. A third area of low precipitation is around Leh in Jammu and Kashmir. The variability is high in regions of low rainfall  such as parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and sides of the Western Ghats.

Similarly , the Peninsular plateau , under the influence of the sea frim three sides, has moderate temperatures. Despite such influences , the unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian  subcontinent is quite perceptible. The associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons, its affect totally proves the stupidity of men.

Idiosyncracies and Appauling

There are quite literally a lot of idiosyncracies and appauling advances to reach and improve. The ozone layer is an apt of  climate change, the assessment reports are of scientific, technical and socio economic  knowledge on climate change. The option for reducing  the rate at which climate change is taking place.

Humans develop great adversities and change. The winter and spring precipitation is projected for the,  and  less for the country, Summer temperatures are projected to continue to rise  anda reduction of soil moisture, which exacerbates heat waves is projected for much the western parts of summer.

Global sea level has risen by about 8 inches by  reliable records in 1880. Also tell man what to do and it will do exactly the opposite? The answer is still not answered and if things and complete change  next several decade , storm surges and high tides could combine with sea level rise and land subsidence to further increase. The sea levels are drastically rising and will not stop until or unless the steps will turn into adamant action. The steps may sound easy and agreeable but when it comes to action of the thought patterns.

Strategic Environment impact Assessment  

Strategic Environment Assessment is a mechanical process for the elaboration of the environment and its implications of a valid plan or policy  and finding out the adverse affects on socio and economic conditions of a particular nation and this becomes a considerable decision making tool for socials. 

The SEA implied the following policy , plan or programs:

It provides an proper and full response to the environmental and climate change –  related challenges;

Its may adversely affect the environment and climate resilience ,and

It even offers great opportunities to enhance  the properties of  an environment and even donate to climate  and low carbon development.

The SEA should be recalled as an  integral part of a policy, plan or programme enriched process beginning from its very early premature stages, so that the steps should be improved and a suitable impact should be seen and greater results are driven. The Government  also must take  a high  degree of ownership. Public participation  is an significant part for a successful  SEA. The Environment Impact Assessment , literally  provides an advantage for a strategic level  and many recommendations  which allows  a good control  over interactions  or cumulative effects.