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Climate of Desert

Climate of desert is refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time, more than thirty years. A desert is a barren area of landscape, where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. It is one of Earth’s major ecosystems, supporting a community of distinctive plants and animals specially adapted to the harsh environment.

The location of deserts is dependent on two factors latitude and global wind patterns. Most deserts are located between 15 and 35 latitude both north and south of the equator. Some deserts are located within the south eastern and north eastern trade wind belts. Because of the wind movements there is dryness in these regions. The moisture is remove before the air gets to the region.

The world is divide into a number of climatic regions. Do you know what type of climate desert regions have and why it is so?  There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features. So, what these controls of the climate do and how it works?

Latitude

It is a measurement on a globe or map of location north or south of the Equator. The tropic of cancer through the middle of the country from the Ran of kuchch in the west to Mizoram in the east. Almost half of the country, lying south of the tropic of cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the tropic, lies in the sub-tropics. Therefore, India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.

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Altitude

It is a distance measurement usually height or point of an object in relation to sea or ground level. India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 m. India also has vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 m. the Himalayas prevent the cold winds from central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia.

Pressure and winds

Pressure and winds are both significantly controlling factors of Earth’s weather and climate. The climate and weather conditions has some atmospheric conditions pressure and surface winds upper air circulation and western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones. Pressure varies from day to day and night to night at the earth’s surface. Areas where the air is warmed often have lower pressure because the warm air rises. This areas are calling low pressure systems. Which places, where the air pressure is high are know as high pressure systems.

The hot desert Sahara

The Sahara is the hottest desert in the world. This desert located in the large part of North Africa. It is the world’s largest desert. It covers area around 8.54 million sq. km. The Sahara desert touches eleven countries Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia and Western Sahara. When some people talk about desert people suddenly think about sand, but deserts are many more than only sand. Sahara desert covered with gravel plains and elevated plateaus with bare rocky surface. These rocky surfaces may be more than 2500m high at some places.

Climate of Sahara desert

The climate of Sahara desert is scorching hot and parch dry. The Sahara has two climatic regimes: a dry subtropical climate in the north and a dry tropical climate in the south. It has a short rainy season. The sky is mostly time cloudless and clear. In this desert, the moisture evaporates faster than it collects. Days are unexpectable hot. In summers, the temperature goes as high to 50 degree Celsius. In night, it may be freezing cold with temperatures nearing zero degrees.

The vegetation in the Sahara desert includes cactus, date palms and acacia. Some of the places have oasis – green islands with date palms surrounding them. Camels, hyenas, jackals, foxes, scorpions, many types of snakes and lizards found here.

In Sahara desert, various types of nomadic tribes lived. There rearing livestock such as goats sheep, camels, and horses. These animals provide so many things such as leather for belts, slippers, water bottles, carpets, clothes.. it helps with protection against due storms and hot winds. The people grow date palms. Crops such as rice, wheat, barley, and beans Are also grown. Egyptian cotton, famous worldwide is grown in Egypt.

Ladakh cold desert

It is a cold desert lying in the great Himalayas on the eastern side of Jammu and Kashmir. Because of altitude Ladakh is always freezing cold and dry. The karakoram range in north and the Zanskar mountains in the south enclose it. Several rivers flow through Ladakh. Indus is the most famous among them. Several glaciers are found in Ladakh for example Gangri glacier. The climate is extremely cold and dry.

The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely. In summer the temperatures just above zero degree and the night temperatures below -30 degree Celsius. Average annual precipitation is roughly 3 inches (80mm) , fine, dry, flaked snow is frequent and sometimes fall heavily. In winters it is freezing cold the temperatures may remain below – 40 degree.

Himalayas

In the Himalayas there is little rainfall as low as 10 cm every year. There is one fact that if you sit in the sun with your feet in the shade, you may suffer from both sunstroke and frost bite at the same time. Here, the vegetation is very sparse. During the summers fruit trees such as apples, apricots and walnut bloom. Several species of birds are sighted in Ladakh.  Robins, redstarts, Tibetan snowcock, raven and hoopoe. Some of these are migratory birds.

The animals are reared to provide for the milk, meat and hides. The hair of the sheep and goat is used to make woollens. The people are here either Muslims or Buddhists.in the summer season people are busy cultivating barley, potatoes, peas, beans, and turnip. The climate in winter months  are very harsh that people keep themselves. Ladakh is also very famous for tourist place. Leh, the capital of Ladakh is well connected by road as well as air. It is also an vital trade center of Ladakh. The tourists visit the areas such as gompa, do trekking. It is also great place for adventurous people