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CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY

Nowadays Child Development and Pedagogy, People only focus on Children’s marks.  If they have a good percentage of marks,  it means they are good students and they are studying.  Rather than focus on whether that child’s concept is clear or not. Does the child grow mentally? Does the child understand the surrounding? So, there are so many questions.

 So, what do you understand about child development and pedagogy?

Child development refers to the process by which a child changes over time. it covers the whole period from their birth to becoming a fully functioning adult.  Child development focuses on physical growth, mental growth, emotional and social development as well. 

According to Merriam Webster

According to Merriam Webster,  pedagogy is the art,  science, and teaching profession of teaching.  It means how to teach creatively to the student. 

Now a new field of psychology emerges that is Child Psychology which focuses on the mind and behavior of children from parent development to adolescence. Psychologists recognize that Child Psychology is unique and complex, but may differ in terms of the Unique perspective they take when approaching development.  development is the process of internal and external growth of a child and the emergence of differentiation of his capability. 

Child development and pedagogy is important part of child psychology to understand the physiological and biological changes that occur in students. Now, it is a very essential topic on CTET. It includes child development and pedagogy-related questions in the entrance examination. This topic plays an important role in teaching exams.

Role of teachers  in child development

As you know,  children spend most of their time in school, so teachers have a very important role in children’s lives. They need to understand individual children and try to teach them with innovative teaching methods,  such as counseling,  bye activities,  interacting with all, etc. According to my experience, the children who study in NGOs are more capable than the children who study in private schools because private schools use simple techniques to teach their students.  They only want their school’s performance high rather than clearing the concept of child and in NGO we see they interact with an individual child.

They use so many techniques such as activities,  and some games so, the child learns more because the student enjoys the learning. The teacher is the first person for his child to learn his social skills in school.  A teacher should make the child comfortable and guide him in the early concept and development of his or her life.  The teacher should be open-minded, emotionally stable and the plant teacher that has the great power to bring positive change to any child.  As a child grows they want the right guidance if they didn’t get guidance And jabber on the wrong path.  Children must get the right guidance from their teachers. 

Role of parents in child development

Parents are the first who knows their child very well.  how children behave, react, and what are their needs?  Parents have an important role in a child’s life as they are the only ones who encourage and motivate the kids to learn and understand their surroundings. He should understand their child rather than impose restrictions and rules in child life.  children acquire skills at the very early stage of their life if the parents take their responsibility well.  Parents are the ones whose guidance children want from time to time to stay on the right path.

When children start growing up, positive parenting improves the child’s cognitive, social and creative thinking skills.  It is very necessary to give time to your kids because when you spend time every day with a child he or she trusts you.  The child learns how to behave with others,  whom to give respect, Team Spirit, the difference between right and wrong, and many more things. 

Theories on child development

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

Piaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s  and was a precocious student, he published his first scientific paper when he was just 11 years old. His interest in the cognitive development of children was inspired by his observation of his only daughter and daughter. These observations reinforce his budding hypothesis that children’s mines were not male and smaller versions of adult mines. Up until this point in history, children were largely treated simply as smaller versions of adults

Know This Meaning Geography

The first to identify

. He was one of the first to identify that the way that children think is different from the way adults think and observe. adults’ minds are occupied all the time therefore there is no observation at all. The mind is always chattering here and there, thinking fragments and not giving enough energy to anything to go beyond. Whereas children are empty-minded and are not occupied all the time. They give their whole observation to one thing which makes them a quick learner as compared to 2 adults. Also so the brain is not completely developed. So this place is a setback To the brain of the children. You also proposed that intelligence is something that grows and develops through a series of state stages. older children do not just think more quickly than younger children which acquired knowledge over some time.

The knowledge is store in the brain. In response to questions, the brain replies with thoughts which are the essence of memory and knowledge. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences between the thinking of younger children versus older children. On his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently and accurately. Albert Einstein called Piaget’s discovery” so simple only a genius could have thought of it”. Cognitive intelligent development involves changes in cognitive processes and abilities. Early development involves processes based upon actions and later processes to change in mental operation

THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE

Ages birth to 2years-  The Infant knows the world through their movements and sensations. Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, listening, and moving. They are also separate from the surroundings and individuals. They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them. That is every action has an equal reaction. During these stages of cognitive development, infants and kids acquire knowledge of true sensory perception and experiences and manipulating objects.

This stage occurs through basic reflexes,  senses, and motor responses. It is during this sensory-motor stage that children go through dramatic growth and learning. They not only learn how to perform physical actions such as crawling, crying, moving, walking, etc. But also they learn a great deal about the language humans speak from the people Around them and interaction. The final part of the sensorimotor stage is that of early representational thought images. Belonging that objects are separate and distinct entities. They have an existence of their outside of individual perception, children are then able to begin to attach names and watch two objects.

THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE

Ages 2 to 7 years- The major characteristic and development changes:

 Kids begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects.  children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspective of others. While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms. Children become more skilled at pretend play during this stage of development and continue to think very concretely about the world around them.

At this stage, children learn to pretend but often struggle with understanding the idea of constancy. For example, a researcher might take a lump of clay, divided into two equal pieces. Then give a child the choice between two pieces of plate to play with. One piece of clay is rolled into a compact ball while the other is matched into a flat pancake shape. since the flat shapes look greater and larger. The preoperational child will likely choose that piece even though the two-piece is the same size.

THE CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE

Ages 7 to 11 years-  During this stage, children begin to think logically about concrete events.

 they begin to understand the concept of reservation that the amount of liquid in a short, white crop is equal to that in a tall skinny glass for example. Their thinking becomes more logical and organized but still very concrete. Children use inductive logic or reasoning from specific information to a general principle. The egocentrism of the previous stage begins to disappear as kids become better at thinking about how other people might view their situation.

At this stage, children also become less egocentric and begin to think about how other people might think and feel about them. Show their behavior of conduct is influenced by others’ thinking. Kids in the concrete operational stage also begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them and that not everyone else. It is necessarily understand their thoughts, feelings, emotions, and opinions.

THE FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE

 Ages 12 and up- During this stage,

that a listen tour young adult begin to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems. It’s beginning to think more about moral, philosophical,  ethical, social, and political issues that required theoretical and abstract reasoning. 

 The final stage of Piaget’s theory involves an increase in logic and understanding of abstract ideas. People become capable of using multiple potential solutions to problems and think more scientifically about the world around them. It is also important to view children’s intellectual development as a quantitative process. kids do not just add more information and knowledge to the existing knowledge as they get older. There is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process these four stages of development. A child at age of 7 doesn’t just have more information about the world than he died at age 2.

Kohlberg’s perspectives on Moral development in a child

It is a theory that focuses on how children develop morality and moral reasoning this theory suggests that moral development orcas in a series of six stages the theory suggest that moral logic is primarily focused on seeking and maintaining justice so what do you understand by moral development. Do parents for social influencers play a greater role in moral development? Do all kids develop morality in similar ways?

 In his theory participants were interviewed To determine the reasoning behind their judgments in each scenario. For example,  John steals the drug,  a woman has cancer and her doctors believe only one drug might save her but that drop was so costly.  The woman’s husband John pays 100 for the drug.  He tries to negotiate with the pharmacist for a lower price or to the botanical garden to pay for it over time.  But the pharmacist refused to sell. 

 It has two stages of development

 Preconventional morality

It is the earliest period of moral development. It lasts around the age of 9.  At this stage, children’s decisions are Primarily shaped by the expectations of adults and the consequences for breaking the rules. Stage one is obedience and punishment-  It means the development of obedience and punishment, especially common in young children,  but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning.  So even the rules are important because it is a way to avoid punishment. Stage 2- individualism and exchange-  It is the stage in which the children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how the size of individual needs. Reciprocity is possible at the appointed moral development but only if it serves one’s interest.

Conventional morality– 

During this time adolescence and leaders internalize the moral standards they have learned from the role models and society. There are two stages in this level: Stage 1 developing good interpersonal relationships-  It is often referred to as the good boy good girl.  Here it is focused on living up to social expectations and roles.  Being nice and consideration of how choices influence relationships. Stage 2- maintaining social order-  it is focused on ensuring that social order is maintained.  The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one tutor, and respecting authority.

 Post conventional morality– 

At this level, people develop an understanding of the principles of morality.  There are two stages: stage 1- social contract and individual rights-  rules of law are important for maintaining the society but members of the society should agree upon the standard.  Stage 2 Universal principle-  it is based on universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning.  Here,  people follow internal principles of justice even if they contract with laws and rules.

Conclusion

Therefore, child development and pedagogy is a very essential topic in teaching. They teach students by various techniques such as storytelling method, heuristic method, reading method, and demonstration method. These are the methods that teachers should use for child development. Teachers can also use so many psychological theories. Under the child development intelligence, child psychology, autocratic teaching strategy, democratic teaching strategy. These strategies come to understand the child and follow to teach a child.

So, you can follow all these techniques, strategies, and theories to understand child development and pedagogy.